Hybrid technologies

Combining advantages to reach greater heights: the strengths of hybrid technology

Hybrid technology combines flexibility with a reduction in CO2 emissions. As an entry-level solution, 48-volt systems enable a cost-effective reduction in CO2 emissions of up to 15% for internal-combustion engines. This is achieved through recovery of braking energy and optimized use of the e-machine to relieve the engine.

For vehicle manufacturers, this means an even better carbon footprint.

More options in the mix: an interview with Nicolai Wacker

A flexible powertrain system that makes reduced-CO2 journeys possible over short distances while increasing efficiency? That has to be a hybrid. The combination of internal-combustion engine and electric motor helps improve the carbon footprint. Full or plug-in hybrids increase the powertrain’s efficiency and make fully electric mobility a reality.

In this interview, Nicolai Wacker explains how hybrid powertrain concepts are being refined and what kind of potential this technology has to shape the future of mobility.

The benefits of hybrid powertrains at a glance

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efficiency

through precise control of the powertrain and brake system

Fuel savings

and reduced CO2 emissions


Greater comfort

thanks to well-coordinated interplay between the internal-combustion engine and electric motor

48-volt hybrid system: recuperation and torque boost

The 48-volt hybrid is an interesting and comparably cheap combination of both worlds. Its 48-volt motor boosts the internal-combustion engine’s torque during acceleration and recovers the energy during coasting.

The 48-volt hybrids come with up to 20 kW of electric-drive power and can also master different driving situations in urban areas purely electrically, such as cruising or parking in inner-city traffic. Overall, consumption savings of up to 15 % are achieved.

48-volt hybrid technology has great growth potential, especially for small and medium-sized vehicles. Bosch estimates that this hybrid concept will then achieve a worldwide market share of up to 20 %.

High-voltage hybridization

The so-called “strong hybrid” (sHEV) is technically more complex than the 48 V hybrid. In combination with a high-voltage battery, its powertrain allows for purely electric driving on a larger scale, so that further CO2 savings can be achieved.

Plug-in hybrids (PHEVs) with voltages of 400–800 V are the efficient choice for day-to-day use and are impressive all-rounders: shorter distances can be covered using electricity alone without compromising on freedom. Longer distances can also be driven using the internal-combustion engine without intervals. Plug-in hybrids with larger, externally chargeable batteries have a range of up to 100 km.

Bosch offers the experience and systems expertise required to successfully realize and refine plug-in systems for hybrids. Alongside e-machines with a variety of power ratings and inverters with the latest silicon carbide semiconductor technology, the comprehensive portfolio of system components also includes DC/DC converters.

What kind of role will hybrid technology play in the future?

Hybrid technology

In ten years’ time, two thirds of all new vehicles will still be equipped with an internal-combustion engine. That is why hybrid technology – in all its guises – will play a vital part in shaping mobility.

Nowadays, the global market shares for sHEVs and PHEVs stand at 4 % and 3 %, respectively, and both have the potential to expand their market share to around 5 % by 2030.

Slimline and powerful: the 48-volt electrical power-pack

48-volt electrical power-pack

The 48-volt electrical power-pack acts as an electric motor for the electric drive system in hybrid vehicles. It features integrated power electronics. The electric motor and power electronics are liquid-cooled and protected against heat. Via an inverter, the electric motor converts electric energy from the battery into mechanical energy and transfers the torque to the wheels via the transmission unit. When braking, the electrical power-pack converts mechanical energy into electric energy for charging the vehicle battery.

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The high-voltage hybrid: a solution for various topologies

High-voltage hybrid

With its high-voltage hybrid system, Bosch offers a uniform system solution for various passenger car topologies. It offers various options, such as hybrid boosting and charging with the internal-combustion engine switched on, as well as regenerative braking and fully electric driving without the engine. Depending on the topology selected, various options are available during operation in terms of drive power and torque.

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Further solutions

48-volt electric power pack P4 module

48-volt electrical power-pack P4 module

This module incorporates a 48-volt electric motor, power electronics, and transmission (including differential) in one compact module.

48-volt DC/DC converter

48-volt DC/DC converter

The DC/DC converter converts electrical energy from 48 V to 12 V and vice versa. It is also used in Bosch’s recuperation systems.

48 V battery

48 V battery

The 48 V battery stores the recovered braking energy and supplies it for partially electric driving and for the vehicle electrical system.

Vehicle control unit (VCU)

Vehicle control unit (VCU)

The VCU assumes functions like torque coordination, driving and gear-shifting strategies, HV and 48-volt coordination, and charging control.

eAxle

eAxle

The eAxle is a compact, cost-effective, and efficient all-in-one solution for electric drive systems.

Electronic engine-control unit (ECU)

Electronic engine-control unit (ECU)

The electronic ECU is the heart of the engine management system. It regulates the fuel supply, the air system, fuel injection, and ignition.

Generation 3evo power electronics

Generation 3evo power electronics

The power electronics improve efficiency in electric drive systems, controlling the electric motor and the connection with the HV battery.

Separate motor-generator

Separate motor-generator

The separate motor-generator acts as an electric motor for the electric drive system.

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